JUC包下的信号量Semaphore

概述

信号量,用来限制能同时访问共享资源的线程上限。

public static void main(String[] args) {
    // 1. 创建 semaphore 对象
    Semaphore semaphore = new Semaphore(3);
    // 2. 10个线程同时运行
    for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
        new Thread(() -> {
            // 3. 获取许可
            try {
                semaphore.acquire();
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
            try {
                log.debug("running...");
                sleep(1);
                log.debug("end...");
            } finally {
                // 4. 释放许可
                semaphore.release();
            }
        }).start();
    }
}

输出:

07:35:15.485 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-2] - running...
07:35:15.485 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-1] - running...
07:35:15.485 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-0] - running...
07:35:16.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-2] - end...
07:35:16.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-0] - end...
07:35:16.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-1] - end...
07:35:16.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-3] - running...
07:35:16.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-5] - running...
07:35:16.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-4] - running...
07:35:17.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-5] - end...
07:35:17.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-4] - end...
07:35:17.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-3] - end...
07:35:17.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-6] - running...
07:35:17.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-7] - running...
07:35:17.490 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-9] - running...
07:35:18.491 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-6] - end...
07:35:18.491 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-7] - end...
07:35:18.491 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-9] - end...
07:35:18.491 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-8] - running...
07:35:19.492 c.TestSemaphore [Thread-8] - end... 

应用

  • 使用 Semaphore 限流,在访问高峰期时,让请求线程阻塞,高峰期过去再释放许可,当然它只适合限制单机线程数量,并且仅是限制线程数,而不是限制资源数(例如连接数,请对比 Tomcat LimitLatch 的实现)
  • 用 Semaphore 实现简单连接池,线程数和数据库连接数是相等的
class Pool {
    // 1. 连接池大小
    private final int poolSize;
    // 2. 连接对象数组
    private Connection[] connections;
    // 3. 连接状态数组 0 表示空闲, 1 表示繁忙
    private AtomicIntegerArray states;
    private Semaphore semaphore;
    // 4. 构造方法初始化
    public Pool(int poolSize) {
        this.poolSize = poolSize;
        // 让许可数与资源数一致
        this.semaphore = new Semaphore(poolSize);
        this.connections = new Connection[poolSize];
        this.states = new AtomicIntegerArray(new int[poolSize]);
        for (int i = 0; i < poolSize; i++) {
            connections[i] = new MockConnection("连接" + (i+1));
        }
    }
    // 5. 借连接
    public Connection borrow() {// t1, t2, t3
        // 获取许可
        try {
            semaphore.acquire(); // 没有许可的线程,在此等待
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < poolSize; i++) {
            // 获取空闲连接
            if(states.get(i) == 0) {
                if (states.compareAndSet(i, 0, 1)) {
                    log.debug("borrow {}", connections[i]);
                    return connections[i];
                }
            }
        }
        // 不会执行到这里
        return null;
    }
    // 6. 归还连接
    public void free(Connection conn) {
        for (int i = 0; i < poolSize; i++) {
            if (connections[i] == conn) {
                states.set(i, 0);
                log.debug("free {}", conn);
                semaphore.release();
                break;
            }
        }
    }
}

原理

AQS使用共享模式,state代表资源数,state大于0才能获得锁,否则进入等待队列。

原创文章,作者:彭晨涛,如若转载,请注明出处:https://www.codetool.top/article/juc%e5%8c%85%e4%b8%8b%e7%9a%84%e4%bf%a1%e5%8f%b7%e9%87%8fsemaphore/